Nota RELI 252

Salam.

Kurang 12 jam dari sekarang, saya dan dua orang lagi adek-beradek saya yang lain akan mula bertarung dengan ujian kefahaman RELI 252. Maka entri terpanjang di dunia kali ini lebih bersifat nota untuk simpanan diri sendiri dan juga boleh dijadikan rujukan bagi sesiapa yang berminat. Ini juga merupakan nota untuk salah satu daripada tiga bahagian yang perlu dijawab esok. Perlu juga diingatkan bahawa sumber rujukan adalah dari buku teks yang digunakan oleh pelajar-pelajar yang ambil RELI 252 di VUW. Mungkin agak berbeza dengan apa yang boleh ditemui dari Wiki atau laman web yang sewaktu dengannya. Jadinya, jangan ambil bulat-bulatla. Eheh. Selamat maju jaya buat diri sendiri dan juga adek-beradekku! Aja aja!

* Ingatkan nak attach file sahaja tapi tak jumpa ikon. Cari mulala lain kali.

1. Hadith report

– authoritative account of the sayings, actions or tacit approval or disapproval of the Prophet Muḥammad

2. Qur’an

-The word, “Qur’an,” said to mean, “Reading”

– Readings:

– reading for meaning (interpretation)

– an excerpted portion of text

– a “variant reading”

– recitation (tilawah)

-Overview of Qur’anic Text

  • In Muslim accounts, Revelation “sent down” to the Prophet Muhammad over 22 years (610-32)
  • Authoritative transmission aural/oral
  • Verses compiled

– Arabic Qur’an

  • 114 chapters of roughly descending length
  • 1st chapter (sura): Al-Fatihah, ritual function

-“Meccan and Medinan” categories

-Qur’anic Content

  • “Multi-layered”: (specific) circumstances at time of revelation; (universal) Message for all Muslims
  • Self-Referential (e.g., 96 Iqra’)

Some Themes:

  • God, Humankind (including past communities and Prophets), Eschatology (Last Things), Ethico-legal elements

-Compilation of the Text

  • 632 Prophet Muhammad passes away
  • 633 first attempt at preparing single copy of Qur’an (under Abu Bakr) from various codices
  • 653 Under Caliph Uthman, authoritative copy of Qur’an compiled (under Zaid b. Thabit)
  • 8th Century: perfection of Arabic script; vowel markings in written texts

3. “Roots of the Law”/ AL-Shafi’i

-Usūl al-Fiqh

-Credited to Al-Shafī’i (d. 820, above)

-Method for deriving the law:

1. Quran

2. Sunnah (Al-Shafī’i’s principal theoretical interest)

3. Qiyās

“rationcination”, analogy based on “effective cause” (‘illah)

example: prohibition on intoxicants (from “wine verses”)

Shafi’i understood “ijtihād” in these terms

4. Ijmā‘

“consensus” of scholars (who? where? when?)

4. Shari’a

– “divine will”

– the general term given to the corpus of rules and precepts governing all aspects of a Muslim’s personal and social life

– the rules are derived from the Quran, the Sunna (practice) of the Prophet, from analogical reasoning and consensus

– considered to be divinely revealed

-also, the Quran indicates that each people was given its Shari’a by God

5. Sufism

  • Revolution in mainstream (!) thought and practice beginning in about the 11th C
  • System of

1. thought (“the Path” to realising divine unity)

2. practice (for example, dhikrs of various masters)

3. transregional organisation, global networks of named lineages

– All three facets captured in the term, “tariqa”

Studies of saints and local politics: Vincent Cornell, Carl Ernst, Bruce Lawrence, Richard Eaton, etc.

According to a.g.:

Before this, “Sufism” popularised in Europe as apolitical, anti-hierarchical (much like Romanticism)

Also, “anti-Sufi” rhetoric of Islamists projected back historically

Structure of study of Islam and “orientalism”

determined approach, not structure of Islam itself
Controversy from the start

“Sober” v. “Drunken” Sufism

Hallaj (d. 923) and Bistami: “ecstatic utterances”

Execution of Al-Hallaj: Considered to be a case of

religious contention (see Massignon, for example)

But also reflected turbulent local politics of Baghdad in the 10th century

Much like how Ghazal’s “spiritual quest” in the 11th century coincided with local upheaval?

Sufism as Touchstone of Controversy and Reform

  • Ibn Taimiyya (13th cent), was a “Sufi”- But attacked “innovative” practice
  • In colonial era and after, common language of renewal and reform is “Anti-Sufi” (and sometimes drew on Ibn Taimiyya)
  • Also, many reformist leaders of colonial era had Sufi family pedigree (as well as “western” education)
  • Bid‘a: innovation

(see book, Islamic Mysticism Contested)

  • Often focus on practice, and practices associated with “Sufis”
  • Tomb veneration
  • Dhikr observance
  • Even practices venerating the Prophet Muhammad (e.g., Mawlid recitation, birthday of the Prophet)

Sufism as Resource for Political Ideology

Some examples:

• Idea of wilayah (compare with Shi’ite imams)

• Hierarchy (“Shadow of God on Earth”)

Theory : “Perfect Man” (Al-Insan Al-Kamil)

For example in Southeast Asia (Johns, “Gift Addressed to the Spirit of the Prophet”)

• Authority of the Shaikh in relation to political power (for example, Chistiyya and Mughal rulers in Indian subcontinent)

Among named “orders,” some more political than others

For example, Naqshbandiyya known for reformist practice and politics in Central Asia

6. Sayyid Ahmad Khan

– early reformer (1817-1898)

-a member of India’s civil service for several decades

-remained loyal to the British during the Mutiny of 1857 (Mutiny-)

-1874- founded the Anglo-Muhammadan Oriental College at Aligarh

-1886- established the Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental Educational Conference which promoted Western education, the translation of Western scientific works and women’s education

-Thoughts

a) India and English government

– universities were established in India with the object of imparting high education

-if the children of respectable Muhammadan families received, alongwith high education and were at the same time given moral discipline, formed into a good society which is most essential for moral development, then, of course, they would, on attaining high education, be not a burden but a boon to the community

– However, some people who regarded themselves as highly educated and eminent statesmen, started to argue that the English government should govern India in the same way as it governs in Europe and make no distinction between the conquerors and the conquered

– Reason- they learnt the word “liberty” and understood it to mean that they might say what came on their tongue or what passed in their mind: whether it was right or wrong, suited to the occasion or otherwise

-then they came across the word “agitation”, what came to their head that the English government is a government that afraid of general agitation and nothing could be obtained without spreading agitation

– the Government was compelled to curtail the sphere of liberty which was allowed before and to frame a law for taking away the liberty of the press

– the Government will not to be blamed for this course; a punishment for actions of the Indians themselves (Mutiny 1857)

– The well being of the people of India and especially of the Musalmans, lies in leading a quiet life under the benign rule of the English government

– They must understand that the religion of Islam enjoins us to remain faithful to those under who we live as their subjects and enjoy peace and to dispel from our minds any idea of disloyalty

b) Islam: The religion of reason and nature

i) Former science and modern science

– the tenets of former wisdom (Greek wisdom) were based on rational and analogical arguments

-new doctrines are established by natural experiments and they are demonstrated before our eyes

-critic on ulama- did much to confront Greek wisdom and philosophy but nothing or very little to satisfy the heart of the denier or doubter of Islam by the way they would present to them the religion of Islam

ii) Need for a new theology

– need a modern theology (‘ilm al-kalam)

– the person that states Islam to be true must also state how he can prove the truth of Islam

– Islam is in full accordance with nature, “Islam is nature and nature is Islam”

7. Al-Afghani

– early modernists (1838-1897)

– philosopher, writer, orator (giver of speeches), journalists and political activist

-traveled widely from India and Afghanistan to Istanbul, Cairo, Paris and London, stirring in Muslims the consciousness of their potential strength in the face of colonialism

– the father of modern Muslim nationalism, proponent of Pan-Islam

-the main inspiration for the reform movement in Islam

-Thoughts

a) Science and Progress

-All wealth and riches are the result of science-science that everywhere manifests its greatness and power

-The science of falsafa and philosophy- the science that has the position of a comprehensive soul and the rank of a preserving force, serves as human prerequisites, the philosophical spirit would call for the acquisition of all the sciences

-Jurisprudence- the philosophy of the Sharia/ the philosophy of law- explained the truth regarding right and wrong, benefit and loss, and the causes of the promulgation of laws

– Critic on Ulama

i) “A scholar is a true light if he is a scholar. Thus, if a scholar is a scholar he must shed light on the whole word, and if his light does not reach the whole world, at least it should light up his region, his city, his village, or his home. What kind of scholar is it who does not enlighten even his own home?”

ii) strange thing-science divided into two parts- Muslim science and European science (therefore forbid others to teach some useful sciences) even men must be related to science not science to men

“”The truth is where there is proof and those who forbid science and knowledge in the belief that they are safeguarding the Islamic religion are really the enemies of that religion

b) Islamic Solidarity

– solidarity- support for another because they share feelings, opinions and aims

– such solidarity can disappear just as it can arise

-the believers in Islam are preoccupied neither with their ethnic origins nor with the people of which they are a part because they are loyal to their faith

-the principles of the Islamic religion are not restricted to calling man to the truth or to considering the soul only in a spiritual context but concerned with relationship among the believers, they explain the law in general and in detail, they define executive power which administers the law, they determine sentences and limit their conditions

-most important thing- they are concerned of the unique goal that the holder of power ought to be the most submissive of men to the rules regulating that power which he gains neither by heritage, nor inheritance, nor by virtue of his race, tribe, material strength or wealth

– the ruler of the Muslims would be their religious, holy, and divine law which makes no distinctions among peoples (safeguarding the sacred law and defending it)

-the amount of power given to Muslims ruler is a product of their observance of divine regulations, of the way in which they follow the good directions which these prescribe and of the absence of all personal ambition in them

-Islam concerned about seeking “good fortune of two worlds”

-the schisms and divisions which have occurred in Muslim states originate only from the failure of the rulers who deviate from the solid principles upon which the Islamic faith is built and stray from the road followed by their early ancestors

8. Muhammad Abduh

-(1849-190)

-follower of Afghani after 1882

– rational theologian and ethicist

Qur’anic basis

– Ethics related to patriotism

– Did much to foster Egyptian nationalism

9. Ottoman Empire/ Ataturk

– Far-reaching Islamic Empire

– rival to European colonial expansion

– “begins” in 16th century

-Careful not to project back contours of the nation-state

– Ottoman Turkish spoken, but no one considered the Empire “Turkish”

– Although Muslims recognized “foreign” rule

-Ottoman reform period:

  • Napoleonic Conquest 1798
  • In 19th Century, Ottomans respond to the European challenge in West Asia
  • Tanzimat Period (1839-76)

legal reform, education, “progress”

• Dissatisfaction builds with “Young Turks”

e.g., Atatürk

– secularism in Turkey 1923

• World War I

(Kemal- a trained military commander fought at Gallipoli)

• Allies break up Ottoman Empire

• Struggle for Turkish Independence

Declaration of the Turkish State

• End of the “Caliphate” declared

office had been claimed in Ottoman history

In South Asia, a “Caliphate” movement

However, position abolished in Turkey

• Education (John Dewey)

• Law: separation of civil and religious law

• Sufism banned (Mevlevis, Rumi’s order)

• Dress (for men): fez outlawed

10. Mawdudi

-Mawlana Abu’l Ala Mawdudi (1903-1979) “Islamic Alternative” – differs from “modernism”
-Chishti (Sufi) heritage; journalist; Qur’an commentary

-Perception of continued decline even in era of new states

-Not exactly a call for a “return” to the past but new paths to solve modern problems

-European colonialism and modern nationalism may be criticised as “neo-colonialist”

-Jamaati Islami, established by Mawdudi in 1941

– In 1947 (after partition), becomes political party

– Mawdudi and oppositional politics

– Ideas have impact under Gen. Zia Ul-Haqq,

1977-1988

“Shura”, consultative assembly and “Islamic law” (Parliamentary system)

-Mawdudi advocates a “theodemocracy” (not merely human-centered “democracy”)

11. Sayyid Qutb

-(1906-1966)

-Works:

  • Qur’anic exegesis
  • Milestones, Social Justice in Islam, etc.
  • Imprisoned, executed in 1966
  • In 1967, Arab-Israel war

– Thought

  • “othering” and jahiliyya
  • “Exodus Paradigm”
  • “Qur’anic generation”

12. Dakwah

– a term that means to “invite” people who share faith to deepen their own understanding and commitment to a way of life that is spiritually fulfilling and that offers the satisfying sense of participating in religious community

– can have very different connotations in different parts of the contemporary Muslim world

– In Indonesia, the idea of da’wa is often closely related with Muslims learning more about Islam

– In India, the idea of dakwah for Tablighi Jama’at is to invite universal participation of all Muslims in enjoining good and forbidding evil, adopting and promoting religion as a way of life as well as the importance of temporary migration from one’s native place

– the idea of dakwah for African American Muslim in the United States involves the use of own cultural expression such as hip hop as the medium of dakwah

13. Jakarta Charter

– was drafted on 22 June 1945 by a nine-man subcommittee of the Badan Penyeledek Usaha Persiapan Kemerdekaan Indonesia (Investigating Committee for the Preparatory Work for Indonesian Independence)

– the charter contained a clause with seven critical words (in Bahasa Indonesia, dengan kewajipan menjalankan syariat Islam bagi pemeluk-pemeluknya) to implement Islamic Law

– this clause was eventually omitted when the constitution was promulgated the day after the independence was declared on 17 august 1945

– Muslim leader were bitter at the dropping of the seven words; the struggle to have them reinstated in the constitution became a central part of the Islamist agenda in later years

– Islamic parties sought unsuccessfully to insert the seven words into a revised constitution in the late 1950s and again in the late 1960s

14. “Salafi”

– a creed founded in the late nineteenth century by Muslim reformers such as Muhammad Abduh, Jamal Al-Din Al-Afghani, Muhammad Rashid Rida, Muhammad Al-Shawkani and al-Jalal al-San’ani

– appealed to a very basic and fundamental concept in Islam- Muslim ought to follow the precedent of the Prophet and his Rightly-Guided Companion (al-salaf al-salih)

– the founders of Salafism maintained that on all issues Muslims ought to return to the original textual sources of the Quran and the Sunnah (precedent) of the Prophet (encourages interpretation of the original sources in light of modern needs and demands)

– not necessarily anti-intellectual but tend to be uninterested in history

– Unlike Wahhabism, Salafism was not hostile to the juristic tradition or the practice of various competing schools of thought

– Also, not hostile to mysticism or Sufism

– founded by Muslim nationalists who were eager to read the values of modernism into original sources of Islam- hence, not necessarily anti-Western

– the Salafis of the nineteenth and early twentienth centuries heavily emphasized the predominance of the concept of maslaha (public interest) in the formulation of Islamic law- emphasized that whatever would fulfill the public interest ought to be deemed a part of Islamic law

* Kalau dah ingat semua ni, dah boleh tidur lena ni.

3 thoughts on “Nota RELI 252

  1. tp skrg smua itu jadi kenangan. moga kuat dlm ingatan kite semua, hingga bleh dijadikan sebagai “lullaby” utk anak2 cucu nnti sebelum lena dibuai mimpi. ilmu yg berguna itu bukan utk disimpan, tp utk disampaikan….tak gitu ye KEN LEE?=p

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